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Infra Business,LCM DTAP, Releases Versioning, Test,


References Generic

I cannot find good reference material for this subject.

Either it is too very detailed like the versioning or release management, or it just mentioning words (wiki dtap) lacking more background.

Trying to build up it here.

Reordering Information

With a reorder of contents of the gathered glossary subjects this page is changed (march 2013)
I have put at dedicated pages as follows Just the DTAP focus is left here. The very technical aspects at work implementation are also have dedicated pages.

References this site

I have put at dedicated pages as follows


data fantays The subjects get involved in discussions by screaming out words and abbrevations.

This is caused by misunderstanding in words or worse by strange mind connections. (See mindset)

To make the context and meaning clear a glossary is made to read my text.



used for almost everything

"Application" at IT

The usage of te word applications is one of the problems because it is used in different areas with different properties. Example is: Business process/logic and tooling/middelware. For both areas the word application is used.

When getting the word "application" translated and back you will get also: use, employment, practice, appliance and much more.
Probably is the word "application" the most used word without having a clear defined context.

Middleware / business logic

The business logic is the one that get normally most attention as it your business. The technology layer could be out-sourced as common utility.
In my picture the, triangle is the most broadening part is the business. Suggesting importance of business. --- In the IAF picture the utility (Technology) is the broadest part. Suggesting a stable foundation.
In the nato1968 document it is also reversed (page 13).


SAAS Pattern

The picture I made is showing a SAAS implementation (using SAS) of different departments sharing the middleware. Every department has one ore more areas that are segregrated as used mountpoints/storage at the host-level (technology-layer).

DTAP build SAAS prod

work confusing

My personal DTAP figures

From IAF framework picture
to my personal pictures
DTAP business software DTAP business software commonly used is application, avoid: business-logic
DTAP business data DTAP business data business-data
Middelware - Infra Middelware - application to avoid the word application: Middleware
Technology - infra Technology - infra infrastructure (hardware, OS, utilities)

These are the too small images that I use better in the relevant chapters: DTAP build SAAS prod DTAP build lifecycle

Translation IAF layers to my personal figures

The IAF approach defines different models. One of the pictures is defining 4 layers. These are the same as in my personal figures.

EA layers

The differences in the classification are:

Middelware / business differences


Middelware difficult position in a organisation

As the middleware is almost invisible for the hardware oriented people and invisible for the business thinking and educated as the hardware evolution of IT, it will be problematic. In this case the challenge will almost be not able to get solved.

My expectations for the future are that: The gap must be closed somehow.


Middleware / business logic

Common used words

Middelware / business question

Question: Is Middleware Infrastructure? (Technology)
Middleware has properties Infrastrcuture (Technology) for example:

Middleware must be made ready to production by configuring (setting of parameters). The naming conventions and the used (virtual) machines and all other related namings must be defined. These are dedicated to every other technical environment.
Question: Is Middleware a business application?
A business application is charaterized by:

Conclusion: Is Middleware a business application?
The only conclusion can be that:

IT EA domains (EA Enterprise Architecture)

Domains IT Enterprise Architecture

EA domains

Domains IT Enterprise Architecture

As there are many artifacts in many domains and al lot of the same words are used for different subjects it is very confusing to handle.
Thinking in the way of the construction op buildings could help. And more if the actions are made phyiscal.

Of course it is confusing to mix all these artifacts within a single DTAP indication. You should indicate every artifact and make a decision on and on with an impact analysis. This is not easy when doing it the first time. The goal is to pinpoint on the really issues to be solved. The real requirements to be met.

Life Cycle Management (LCM) , Software Configuration management (SCM), Version Control SDM ITIL Prince TMAP VMAP COBIT ITG and many more have all to deal with it.

To implement an DTAP approach is often by-passed in projects building new implementations because it is often thougt to be very difficult.
They are right, having to solve the same nasty things like security over and over again. Failing in using a generic template.

Other relevant common words

If Find QA, Quality Assurance, is used to indicate the UAT User Acceptance Testing. I am using the single letter A. One of te four in DTAP
Staging DSP
If Find Staging, (Development Staging Production), is used to indicate Acceptance Testing. The short abbrevation indication is DSP. I am using the single letter A. One of te four in DTAP
The Focus with DSP is on server segregation. Details of working with segreagated data/code for business is missing. Development Staging Production searching is giving many hits on webservers. This makes sense as webservers themselves do not maintain business data. In that approach it is life cycle-managent of infrastructure.
I´m Dutch in that language the abbrevation of DTAP is OTAP. In German there must be al lot of guidelines.
The Soll - Ist approach to security are German words.

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Develop Test Accept Production, DTAP

Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) - another word
The fundamentals of working with DTAP more detailed working out should be somewhere.
The glossary IT contains a lot of links as glossary with IT background.

The subjects get involved in discussions by screaming out words and abbrevations. This is caused by misunderstanding in words or worse by strange mind connections. (See mindset)
To make the context and meaning clear a glossary is made to read my text.

Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) - another word
The fundamentals of working with DTAP more detailed working out should be somewhere.
The glossary IT contains a lot of links as glossary with IT background.

Generic Approach DTAP

DTAP lifecycle

DTAP words explained

Development The development of business logic done in any form of code. The first kind of testing is done with this (program test)
Test The testing of business logic, a stage after development. System-test and test of chains is done. The difference with development is that all settings are more a less like the aimed production situation.
Acceptance The testing of business logic within the scope that all things must be able to be accepted by the future usage within production.
Production The operational usage of the business logic

release and deployment

SDM ITIL Prince all framesworks have something about releases.

Implementation mandatory guidelines

Searching the current employers websites. Indeed the required mast document is found.
References to above (cobit isaca itgi) are made.
The segregation of development test acceptance production id made.
Four classifications of confidentially are defined. "public" "restricted" "confidential" "secret"
Al lost of othter documents are also available as "minimum standards". They should be known by IT-staff.

The document it self is not classified as "public" so publication of this is not possible.
Documented is involved staff should be educated in this knowledge.
In real life: Do not expect IT-staff having knowledge of these documents or ignoring them or having different targets.

top 25 Software errors (sans).

Versioning - Retention

Revisions - Life Cycle


Revision Control

Revision control, also known as version control and source control (and an aspect of software configuration management), is the management of changes to documents, computer programs, large web sites, and other collections of information.

Version Control. Is an approach assuming developers have code on their own machines an many developpers are working without coordination.
In a simplified model with central storage the classic source-management model is sufficient. It is the file-locking approach.

My Expectation is that with the better network speeds now available: There wil be no need for cumbersome version control anymore to solve the developers issues.


Life Cycle

SDP is a structure imposed on the development of a software product.
It is all the same.
Segregation of environments in the building and maintenance process in all of the IT parts .
some wild DTAP links

Retention periods

Retention period
complex Retention period The retention period of a document is an aspect of records management. It represents the period of time a document should be kept or "retained" both electronically and in paper format.

Retention period , niqca sample , is a policy from laws guidelines. It is using words like version and records. Easy to be mistaken by IT staff as revision (lcm).

Retention period ,sans backup/electronic-data-retention-policy_514 , underpinning the need and the way it is intermixed with doing backups.
Data recovery
complex Data recovery is the process of salvaging data from damaged, failed, corrupted, or inaccessible secondary storage media when it cannot be accessed normally. Often the data are being salvaged from storage media such as internal or external hard disk drives, solid-state drives (SSD), USB flash drive, storage tapes, CDs, DVDs, RAID, and other electronics.

Backup The secondary purpose of backups is to recover data from an earlier time, according to a user-defined data retention policy, typically configured within a backup application for how long copies of data are required.

Disaster Recovery
complex Disaster recovery (DR) is the process, policies and procedures related to preparing for recovery or continuation of technology infrastructure critical to an organization after a natural or human-induced disaster.[1] Disaster recovery is a subset of business continuity

A backup site or work area recovery site is a location where an organization can easily relocate following a disaster, such as fire, flood, terrorist threat or other disruptive event. This is an integral part of the disaster recovery plan and wider business continuity planning of an organization.

High availability is a system design approach and associated service implementation that ensures a prearranged level of operational performance will be met during a contractual measurement period.

Seven tiers of disaster recovery Although the original known published concept dates back to the 1990’s, Business Continuity Planning (BCP) and Disaster Recovery Specialists today continue to use the 7-Tiers to illustrate continuity capabilities and costs at a very high level.
Journaling file system
complex journal /log A journaling file system is a file system that keeps track of the changes that will be made in a journal (usually a circular log in a dedicated area of the file system) before committing them to the main file system. In the event of a system crash or power failure, such file systems are quicker to bring back online and less likely to become corrupted.
Versioning file system
complex Versioning_file_system A versioning file system is similar to a periodic backup, with several key differences.

Release management

ITIL Release management

complex itil release governance The current ITIL implementation landscape is populated with Incident, Change and Configuration process improvement projects. However, mention Release Management (RM) to an IT Manager in the Infrastructure group shop and you will likely receive a few blank stares.
Alpha Beta Gold - Release Life Cycle
confused release life cycle Is an other approach assuming new tools to be market and developers are the primary target to accept new technology.

This is out of the scope of delivering new business logic, Where the goal is using IT systems is aspect to the business proces.

The way the new tools are build can follow the DTAP principles commonly used. That information is not available.

Source code

believe In software development, obfuscated code is the deliberate act of making source or machine code difficult to understand by humans.
Programmers may deliberately obfuscate code to conceal its purpose (security through obscurity) or its logic to prevent tampering, deter reverse engineering, or as a puzzle or recreational challenge for someone reading the source code.

As java has become easy readable, Java class file , decompliation is possible:
JAD: Jad (JAva Decompiler) is a currently unmaintained decompiler for the Java programming language. Jad provides a command-line user interface to extract source code from class files. The most popular GUI for Jad is DJ Java Decompiler. According to CNET.com, in the past eight years the various versions of DJ Java Decompiler has been downloaded over 10 million times. A graphical user interface for Jad is JadClipse which is a plugin to the Eclipse IDE.

Making the code obfuscated is in my opinion a signal of not trusting something. Malware is using obfuscation to bypass recognization by 4us/malware scanners.


A Database is a structured collection of data.
SQL or Structured Query Language) is a special-purpose programming language designed for managing data in relational database management systems (RDBMS).
In computer science, ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that database transactions are processed reliably. In the context of databases, a single logical operation on the data is called a transaction.

In computing, NoSQL In computing, NoSQL (commonly interpreted as "not only SQL"[1]) is a broad class of database management systems identified by non-adherence to the widely used relational database management system model. NoSQL databases are not built primarily on tables, and generally do not use SQL for data manipulation.

Types_of_DBMS feeling going back in time as other types of dbms exist. like the network model.

nosql-data-modeling-techniques (march 2012 blog Ilya Katsov).

Entity–relationship model (ER model) in software engineering is an abstract way to describe a database. .

Virtual DWH

Federation - Virtualize Data
Federation or better virtualized data is leaving the data at the origin. Not duplicating the data.
Duplicating data is technical easier to do. The common approach: give me a copy of your data...

Dimensional modeling
Dimensional modeling (wiki) Design Tip #152 Slowly Changing Dimension Types 0, 4, 5, 6 and 7 (kimball group) is the name of a set of techniques and concepts used in data warehouse design. It is considered to be different from entity-relationship modeling (ER). Dimensional Modeling does not necessarily involve a relational database. The same modeling approach, at the logical level, can be used for any physical form, such as multidimensional database or even flat files.

Dimensional modeling always uses the concepts of facts (measures), and dimensions (context). Facts are typically (but not always) numeric values that can be aggregated, and dimensions are groups of hierarchies and descriptors that define the facts.

The star schema, multi dimensional data base (MDDB), OLAP (OnLine Analytical Proces) are implied namings in this area.
All stages make it a log running project to achieve the results. With Agile Scrum and all better hardware and software this could become an outdated approach to build a dwh.

Interpret JIT

compile interprete VM JIT
Technic of building computer programs are evolving. As hardware has become faster more advanced approaches are implemented.

A compiler is a computer program (or set of programs) that transforms source code written in a programming language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language, often having a binary form known as object code). The most common reason for wanting to transform source code is to create an executable program.

monolitic program
Building an executable from possible many modules is delivering a a single (monolithic) program. This type of programs are:
In computer science, an interpreter normally means a computer program that executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming language. An interpreter may be a program that either
  1. executes the source code directly
  2. translates source code into some efficient intermediate representation (code) and immediately executes this
  3. explicitly executes stored precompiled code[1] made by a compiler which is part of the interpreter system

A Virtual_machine (VM) is a "completely isolated guest operating system installation within a normal host operating system". Modern virtual machines are implemented with either software emulation or hardware virtualization or (in most cases) both together.

JIT In computing, Just-in-time_compilation(JIT), also known as dynamic translation, is a method to improve the runtime performance of computer programs. Historically, computer programs had two modes of runtime operation, either interpreted or static (ahead-of-time) compilation. Interpreted code is translated from a high-level language to a machine code continuously during every execution, whereas statically compiled code is translated into machine code before execution, and only requires this translation once.

Development approaches toolst

Integrated Development Environment
IDE An IDE (wiki) is a complete development environment.
An integrated development environment (IDE) is a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development. It will contain a versioning process, otherwise generic versioning tools are not easy to implement on your own.

Eclipse Eclipse (software) (wiki) Eclipse is a multi-language software development environment comprising an integrated development environment (IDE) and an extensible plug-in system.

webdav (wiki) Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) is an extension of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) that facilitates collaboration between users in editing and managing documents and files stored on World Wide Web servers.

A RESTful web service (also called a RESTful web API) is a web service implemented using HTTP and the principles of REST. It is a collection of resources, with four defined aspects: .. (wiki)

The Web Services Description Language WSDL (wiki) is an XML-based interface description language that is used for describing the functionality offered by a web service.

stateless (wiki) In computing, a stateless protocol is a communications protocol that treats each request as an independent transaction that is unrelated to any previous request so that the communication consists of independent pairs of requests and responses. A stateless protocol does not require the server to retain session information or status about each communications partner for the duration of multiple requests.

LAMP (software bundle) (wiki) LAMP is a solution stack of free, open source software. The acronym LAMP refers to the first letters of Linux (operating system), Apache HTTP Server, MySQL (database software, but now sometimes MariaDB) and PHP, Perl or Python, principal components to build a viable general purpose web server.

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Generic Approach testing

The componets , objects, artifacts must get secured to by means of Logical roles in dtap and lcm.
This will lead to a lot of combinations, some are forebidden and other wanted.

VMAP TMAP testing, generic links

VMAP TMAP testing

tmap (sogeti dutch) TMap NEXT look inside version.pdf Setting up and managing the test environment represents an expertise of which testers generally have no knowledge. This is why a separate department – outside the project – is generally responsible for setting up and managing the test environment.

Regression testing


application?     DTAP detailed       Testing IT     BU - IT view       top  bottom

Business view IT

The componets , objects, artifacts must get secured to by means of Logical roles in dtap and lcm.
This will lead to a lot of combinations, some are forebidden and other wanted.

Artifacts / objects / components

Question: Wich artifacts (objects elements) are in the process of DTAP?
Answer: Just everything that is relevant.

A simplified but incomplete list in chapters is made.
Business side

Infra middleware support
Infra OS level support

Logical Roles dtap lcm

Wich roles are in this game with DTAP? Anseer: There are not that many roles, they can be reused for every new "application". Just the real persons and the place in the organization can be different. Some combinations can be made as long as no conflicting responsibabilites arise. To make it as simple it can be, the basic limited number of roles is used.
A simplified complete list is:

Business side

Infra middleware support

Infra OS level support

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© 2012 J.A.Karman (26 feb 2012 - more to do)