Understanding meaning computer data.
Information Technology, mathematical statistical foundation.
Technical solutions the foundations.
A cyle goes around, clockwise counterclockwise.
A windwill goes counterclockwise. For convenience the proces life cycle is clockwise
the most logical begin
This is the most technical part.
Being enablers there should be no dependicies for business processes.
There are three subtopics:
- 1/ information - computers
- 2/ encryption, communication meaning
- 3/ statistics, data exploration
To go to business processes is by floor operations.
another dimension: next door
Too fast .. previous
| Reference || Topic || Squad |
| Intro ||Technical solutions the foundations. ||01.01 |
| hst_ict_19-20 ||Information technology, 19th-20th century. ||02.01 |
| hst_ict_20_I ||Information technology, 20th (I) century. ||03.01 |
| hst_ict_20_II ||Information technology, 20th (II) century. ||04.01 |
| hst_ict_20_III ||Information technology, 20th (III) century. ||05.01 |
| hst_ict_sumry ||Summarizing history information technology. ||06.01 |
- 2020 week:27
- Building up as result from split.
What is missed in old pages for later to add.
There are many ways to exchange data between processes. A clear decoupling plan is helpful with creating normalized systems.
Normalized systems have the intention in an easy transition by some "application" in another.
Some well known ways to exchange data are:
- Text organized by fixed comlumsn in a dataset.
- Comma seperated files (or other char).
- a shared DBMS (Data Base) table.
- JSON files
- XML files
Communication technology, the beginning.
Samuel Morse Samuel Morse
The Morse system for telegraphy, which was first used in about 1844, was designed to make indentations on a paper tape when electric currents were received.
Morse´s original telegraph receiver used a mechanical clockwork to move a paper tape. When an electrical current was received, an electromagnet engaged an armature that pushed a stylus onto the moving paper tape, making an indentation on the tape.
When the current was interrupted, a spring retracted the stylus and that portion of the moving tape remained unmarked.
Morse code was developed so that operators could translate the indentations marked on the paper tape into text messages.
In his earliest code, Morse had planned to transmit only numerals and to use a codebook to look up each word according to the number which had been sent.
However, the code was soon expanded by Alfred Vail in 1840 to include letters and special characters so it could be used more generally.
Vail estimated the frequency of use of letters in the English language by counting the movable type he found in the type-cases of a local newspaper in Morristown, New Jersey.
The three big firms, Westinghouse, Edison, and Thomson-Houston, were trying to grow in a capital-intensive business while financially undercutting each other.
There was even a "war of currents&qut propaganda campaign going on with Edison Electric trying to claim their direct current system was better and safer than the Westinghouse alternating current system.
Competing in this market meant Westinghouse would not have the cash or engineering resources to develop Tesla´s motor and the related polyphase system right away.
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
Between 1886 and 1889 Hertz would conduct a series of experiments that would prove the effects he was observing were results of Maxwell's predicted electromagnetic waves.
Starting in November 1887 with his paper "On Electromagnetic Effects Produced by Electrical Disturbances in Insulators",
Hertz would send a series of papers to Helmholtz at the Berlin Academy, including papers in 1888 that showed transverse free space electromagnetic waves traveling at a finite speed over a distance.
Late one night, in December 1894, Marconi demonstrated a radio transmitter and receiver to his mother, a set-up that made a bell ring on the other side of the room by pushing a telegraphic button on a bench.
Supported by his father, Marconi continued to read through the literature and picked up on the ideas of physicists who were experimenting with radio waves.
He developed devices, such as portable transmitters and receiver systems, that could work over long distances, turning what was essentially a laboratory experiment into a useful communication system.
Marconi came up with a functional system with many components
Closing the automatisation connection.
Encrypting decrypting machines.
Colossus was a set of computers developed by British codebreakers in the years 1943-1945 to help in the cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher.
Colossus used thermionic valves (vacuum tubes) to perform Boolean and counting operations.
Colossus is thus regarded as the world´s first programmable, electronic, digital computer, although it was programmed by switches and plugs and not by a stored program.
(brittanica) The best known person for using computers.
Honored by: Turing award
What mathematicians called an "effective" method for solving a problem was simply one that could be carried by a human mathematical clerk working by rote.
In Turing´s time, those rote-workers were in fact called "computers," and human computers carried out some aspects of the work later done by electronic computers.
The Entscheidungsproblem sought an effective method for solving the fundamental mathematical problem of determining exactly which mathematical statements are provable within a given formal mathematical system and which are not.
A method for determining this is called a decision method. In 1936 Turing and Church independently showed that, in general, the Entscheidungsproblem problem has no resolution, proving that no consistent formal system of arithmetic has an effective decision method.
May be not what has become mainstream computer science, code breaking. For sure the foundation for AI Artical Intelligence. To cite:
Turing was a founding father of artificial intelligence and of modern cognitive science, and he was a leading early exponent of the hypothesis that the human brain is in large part a digital computing machine.
He theorized that the cortex at birth is an "unorganised machine" that through "training" becomes organized into a universal machine or something like it.
Turing proposed what subsequently became known as the Turing test as a criterion for whether an artificial computer is thinking (1950).
Data, information representations.
Ascii - Ebdic - Single byte
These are encodings: interpretation of a single byte 8 bits, 256 different values)
- Every byte can be processed by the computer as valid a valid byte / character.
- Not all interpretations are existing in defined Ascii tables or Ebcdic tables.
transcoding without loss of information is not always possible.
Unicode character representation - Multi byte.
Many versions several implementations. Unicode
- Not Every byte can be processed by the computer as valid.
- a character is made up in varying between 1-4 bytes.
- UTF8 - varibele 1-4 bytes, the lower 127, old Ascii interpretation.
The first 32 being control characters not being used as text characters.
- UTF16LE UT16BE 2,4 bytes. BE big-endian or Le little-endian.
the endianess is following the order of the preferred hardware chip architecture (LE) left to right or (BE) right to left.
- UTF32LE UT32BE 4 bytes. BE big-endian or LE little-endian.
Unicode is becoming the defacto standard.
Floating, Math in ICT.
Atbasic issues in ICT with math: inaccuracy with calculations, Floating numbers.
Using a slider you had to think about that and by that knowing the possible impact.
Using a computer everybody trust the results until the surprising wrong results getting complaints by feed back respsonses.
The yellow brick road.
Monetizing Data: Follow the Yellow Brick Road
While the tools have vastly improved, and the power of BI buttressed by AI and Machine Learning has helped greatly with incorporating challenges like unstructured and disparate data (internal and external),
that Yellow Brick Road journey still requires cultural and operational steps including empowerment of associated teams.
There is not a lot of room for autocracy in achieving the best results.
Foundational elements work best, and collaboration is a must.
© 2012,2020 J.A.Karman